Month: November 2023

Implications of the Greenhouse Gas Protocol (GHGP) revisions on biomethane

Tracking Biomethane Usage is Key to Achieving EU Climate Goals

Biomethane holds immense potential to contribute to Europe’s aggressive decarbonization goals. As using biomethane becomes an increasingly feasible and popular way to reduce an entity’s environmental impact, many are looking to the GHGP to provide guidance on how to account for their renewable gas transactions.

However, the GHGP has not yet issued formal or final guidance on this topic, essentially leaving it up to reporting entities and their auditors in the interim.

This article considers the benefits of market-based accounting for biomethane use and discusses the past, present, and potential future treatment of biomethane certificates under the GHGP.


Biomethane Certificates Reflect the Emissions Reductions Benefits of Biomethane Use

Biomethane is derived from the decomposition of organic waste in landfills or anaerobic digesters that process waste from food processing plants, agricultural facilities, or wastewater treatment plants. The decomposition process creates biogas, which is then captured, cleaned, and then either injected into the national natural gas pipeline or shipped to the point of consumption in the form of biomethane.

In order to ensure that the reduced emissions associated with using biomethane as a replacement for fossil gas are effectively verified and tracked, biomethane certificates, also referred to as Renewable Thermal Certificates in the U.S., have been developed as a market-based mechanism to account for the environmental benefits. Biomethane certificates serve to verify the renewable and low-carbon attributes of biomethane and help organizations accurately report their carbon reduction efforts.

Purchasing biomethane certificates in quantities that match all or part an entity’s natural gas use is an effective and direct way to address those natural gas emissions. Companies that purchase biomethane certificates to substantiate the use of biomethane may want to understand whether this reduces their Scope 1 emissions under the GHGP scheme.


Latest GHGP Guidance Leaves Open Questions for Market-Based Accounting of Biomethane

In the past, the GHGP’s publications have indicated both support for and opposition to the use of biomethane certificates to adjust a purchaser’s emissions. For instance:

+ GHGP’s original Scope 2 Guidance, published in 2015, included an annex stating that companies may leverage the market-based accounting framework for contractual procurements of biomethane. However, this annex was removed in 2020.
GHGP’s draft Land Sector and Removals Guidance published in September 2022 stated that an “average data method” should be used to account for emissions of gas purchased from the common pipeline, and that biomethane certificates, including those purchased bundled with gas, may be reported separately from the scopes in an inventory report but cannot adjust emissions.

The latest statement from the GHGP regarding biomethane certificates came in an August 2023 blog post, which states that there is no definitive guidance from WRI on how to report biomethane purchases from the common carrier pipeline. It reads:

“In the absence of guidance, companies purchasing certificates may wish to consult with their auditors and consider rules provided by relevant target-setting programs or applicable regulatory schemes in their jurisdiction(s) on how to report these purchases in their reports, while ensuring full transparency and following all GHG accounting and reporting principles. “

The GHGP also comments that companies may separately report avoided emissions resulting from the use of biomethane using project or intervention accounting methods, separately from the scopes.The blog notes that more guidance will be provided on this topic in coming years. The GHGP is undertaking a more holistic analysis of the appropriateness of market-based accounting approaches in GHG inventories across sectors, end-uses, and scopes, which is expected to be completed over the next two to three years. WRI has confirmed that they will work closely with organizations such as the RNG Coalition and the European Biogas Association on this process. 3Degrees believes that the GHGP will define a transparent, comprehensive methodology that allows for the use of biomethane certificates to adjust gas emissions, but this will take time.


Considerations for Companies Reporting Biomethane under GHGP

In Europe, the market for biomethane certificates is still developing, with a blend of voluntary and regulated registries. Cross-border trade of these certificates is currently only possible amongst a few European countries. However, based on Europe’s policy focus on the role of biomethane in climate change mitigation strategies, 3Degrees expects these markets to flourish soon.

Without definitive guidance from GHGP, 3Degrees recommends companies use the frameworks put forward by regulatory programs and/or the prior GHGP guidance from the Scope 2 annex, while also consulting with their auditors and being transparent about their use of market-based accounting. As the market further develops and the GHGP works towards final guidance, we look forward to working with our clients on biomethane solutions to help meet their emissions targets.

The 3Degrees’s Energy & Climate Practice team is ready to provide support and guidance biomethane certificate market. Get in touch with our team to learn more.

REMA (Review of Electricity Market Arrangements) update

The first consultation on the UK’s Review of Electricity Market Arrangements (REMA) concluded in October 2022 and the results are in. After digesting the results, the UK Government’s Department of Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS) published its summary of the feedback they received on their proposal for reform, and for those of you who do not have the time to review its 129 pages of content, it seems that most respondents agree that the market needs reform.

However, before we dig into what’s still up for discussion and what has been ruled out, let’s recap on REMA and its aims.


REMA: Background and steps taken so far

In the summer of 2022, and in response to the recent energy crisis, BEIS announced its intention to redesign the current UK electricity market to enable it to better accommodate future challenges presented by the transition to a distributed renewable energy system.

Trilemma graphic showing all three elements balanced. These elements are energy security, energy equity and environmental sustainability

In addition to addressing the ever elusive energy trilemma, which is the challenge of simultaneously promoting sustainability, affordability, and security of supply, the priorities of the reform were:

  • increasing investment in low carbon generation capacity in order to meet decarbonisation targets;
  • increasing system flexibility to support the balancing of supply and demand and the stability of the system as variable renewable generation increases;
  • providing efficient locational signals to minimise system costs;
  • maintaining system operability as variable renewable generation increases;
  • and managing price volatility as variable renewable generation increases.

The reforms will be focused on the wholesale power market, specifically looking at pricing location, technology, balancing, price formulation, and dispatch method, as well as the acceleration of low carbon power generation while promoting flexibility, capacity and operability. BEIS made it clear that they were willing to consider a broad range of solutions and were not shy to acknowledge that reform on this scale will inevitably result in both winners and losers.

To solve the problems presented by the green transition, there were a variety of ideas on the table from locational marginal pricing to market segmentation by technology, to even a Dutch style auction by carbon abatement potential.After the first round of consultation, we are a step closer to the new target market.

The consultation received over 200 responses from a range of interested parties, including renewable energy developers, utilities, trade associations, members of academia, investors and even 29 private energy enthusiasts. BEIS assessed the feedback they received and triaged ideas based on its priorities, outlined above, so let’s have a look at the results.


What’s out…

A map of the options space highlighting options discounted based on consultation feedback.

A number of proposals were eliminated, and a summary of the important ones is below.

Local imbalance pricing

The proposal for setting imbalance prices locally based on the specific supply/demand balance for a particular part of the grid did not make it to the next round of consideration. BEIS concluded that this idea would be too complicated to implement and would not result in the cheapest option for the consumer.

Pay As Bid price formation

The “Pay As Bid” option for generators to offer individual bids each half-hour of the day has been eliminated due to the significant complexity and concern around the possibility of generators gaming the system to the detriment of consumers. So, “Pay as Clear” is here to stay, which means that other reform proposals must prevent lower marginal cost generators from achieving elevated prices during periods of system stress.

Increasing supply obligations to support Mass low carbon generation

BEIS ruled out the idea of placing further obligations on suppliers to support renewable energy deployment in the short-term, presumably in recognition of the stress energy retailers and consumers are already under. This implies that further renewable energy deployment must rely on consumer demand, corporate power purchase agreements (PPAs), or government support funded by taxpayers.

Capacity payment

BEIS ruled out the option of offering capacity payments to generators due to the lack of evidence that was put forward to justify any additional benefits compared to the current auction-based capacity market, however BEIS appears open to reviewing the existing scheme and will likely seek additional input in future REMA consultations.


What is left in…

Market separation

BEIS is still considering moving renewable energy generators to their own dedicated market which would likely be based on project-specific financing and construction costs, though price setting details have yet to be defined. The most likely settlement mechanism for this market would be a Contract for Difference (CfD) with additional market exposure such as the establishment of caps or collars and could use deeming for settlement purposes meaning that CfD adjustments are calculated based on a generic generation profile rather than project-specific data.

Potential impact on corporate buyers

This would likely negatively impact the corporate PPA market, as it will be hard for corporate buyers to demonstrate true additionality if a project’s market risk is borne by the government, meaning subsidised, while the corporate receives the REGOs. Further, there would be limited potential upside for corporate buyers in any PPA contracts due to it going to the government through their CFD.

Moving to locational marginal pricing

Moving to zonal settlement or a US-style nodal pricing system are still very much on the table as alternatives to the current national settlement system. Respondents highlighted the complexity involved in developing these markets and the potential damage it could do to investor confidence. BEIS, however, is likely eyeing the possible benefits of lowering the wholesale price of energy in areas of high renewable penetration, as it could offer both regional industrial incentives and lower domestic power costs for rural areas of the country.

Potential impact on corporate buyers

This would likely negatively impact existing virtual PPAs and would make the siting of new projects much more important, as areas of high renewable deployment would likely see much lower settlement prices. BEIS should consider this option carefully as it could have the unintended consequence of slowing down large-scale renewable deployment, as permitting and interconnection would likely be harder to achieve in areas of high demand which tend to be near urban areas.

Wholesale Balancing

BEIS has not yet ruled out the idea of balancing the system at the local level before the national price settlement, with some respondents making the case that it could reduce the number of grid operator interventions required and reduce the likelihood of stress events due to supply/demand dynamics largely being sorted out earlier in the balancing process.

Potential impact on corporate buyers

This would likely negatively impact the corporate PPA market due to increased balancing costs in areas of high renewable deployment, as intermittent generation requires more balancing actions. Corporates with physical PPAs would suffer most, as these agreements expose them to balancing costs. In virtual PPAs, developers are typically the party exposed to balancing costs, so they would likely require higher PPA prices to cover this risk in new contracts and may call upon change in law clauses in existing contracts.

Supporting the rollout of “Mass low carbon power”

As noted above, BEIS was not open to additional schemes for suppliers to support renewable energy deployment, however respondents were keen to expand the current CfD mechanism while taking care not to weaken the growing corporate PPA market. In BEIS’ response, it recognised the comments around supporting the PPA market and was open to the possibility of the government standardising and underwriting PPA contracts to help reduce counterparty risk and stimulate more PPAs.

Potential impact on corporate buyers

The impact on the corporate PPA market should be positive. The fact that BEIS has not signalled an intention to increase government subsidies to renewables highlights the importance of corporate PPAs in the UK market, which is reflected in their stated intention of supporting the corporate PPA market, which should also improve investor confidence.

Dispatch methods

Moving to a centralised dispatch model where the grid directly calls generators on or off as opposed to allowing market signals to incentivise the required behaviour was seen as cumbersome and technologically difficult, but it was not ruled out. It was noted that continuing to use market signals to encourage self-dispatch stimulates adjustments in real-time, so we may see the central dispatch proposal fall away in the next consultation.

Potential impact on corporate buyers

Moving to a centralised dispatch model would likely negatively impact the corporate PPA market, as it distorts market-based solutions to curtailment. In theory, a centralised model shouldn’t significantly alter the amount of renewable energy curtailed during periods of oversupply, but there is a risk that the grid operator would be choosing winners and losers rather than allowing buyers and sellers to agree to terms themselves.


Overall expected impact on Corporate PPAs

Despite getting more clarity on BEIS’ thinking around REMA, the future of the UK wholesale power market is still far from certain. Any proposal that changes the fundamental pricing mechanism will clearly have significant impacts to current and future CfDs and PPAs, however more subtle changes to things like balancing and dispatch could also have severe implications to these agreements.

Moving renewable energy assets to their own dedicated market would also present problems to CfD-based corporate PPAs, especially if the government used their own CfD mechanism to set the price of this market. After all, how would a corporate buyer compete with a government-backed CfD available to all renewable energy assets in the UK? Typically by paying higher PPA prices that may stymie the corporate PPA market.

As mentioned above, BEIS has openly accepted that there will be winners and losers with a change of this scale, but some comfort can be taken in their stated intention to protect the growing UK PPA corporate market, though it is certain that corporates and developers alike will be keeping a keen eye on the results of the next consultation.


Next steps

BEIS expects to publish a second consultation by the end of 2023, and this one is intended to provide an opportunity for stakeholders to provide further input and feedback on the proposed reforms to the electricity market. The government has indicated that they may still make decisions on shorter-term reforms if they are required to protect consumers. However, it seems unlikely BEIS will need to make any rash decisions given current market prices.

BEIS recognizes the need to consider the potential impacts on consumers and establish an “end-user forum” to address this. This forum will allow consumers to provide their perspectives and feedback on the proposed reforms, ensuring that the reforms are consumer-centric and consider the affordability and accessibility of energy for all.

3Degrees will continue to monitor this consultation and release further publications as the initiative unfolds. In the meantime, feel free to get in touch to further discuss this topic and how it may affect your current PPAs or upcoming procurements.

Download the Carbon Action Playbook

Amidst an escalating climate crisis, urgent action is imperative to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The 2015 Paris Agreement underscores the need for global efforts to achieve net-zero emissions by 2050, emphasizing the vital role of both public and private sectors. The Voluntary Carbon Market (VCM) has emerged as a crucial tool, empowering companies to fund essential carbon reduction and removal projects, yet, navigating the VCM is complex, given the evolving landscape and the absence of standardized guidance.

Enter 3Degrees’ Carbon Action Playbook — a comprehensive framework born out of our own internal carbon principles. This playbook translates our guiding principles into actionable steps for companies eager to integrate carbon credits into their decarbonization strategies. Drawing from various third-party NGO action frameworks and market guidance, our playbook provides a clear and practical roadmap for navigating the VCM.

  • Learn how to shape a comprehensive climate strategy, discovering the pivotal role carbon credits play in achieving global sustainability goals.
  • You will discover effective carbon procurement strategies and ensure robust due diligence to make informed, quality-driven procurement decisions
  • Understand the importance of establishing credible carbon credit claims by prioritizing transparency, and adopting a strategic communication approach.



What is Carbon Insetting? — The Green Insider Podcast Featuring John Bourne

3Degrees’ John Bourne joined Mike Nemer for eRENEWABLE and The Green Insider Podcast, where they discussed carbon insetting and original ways organizations are reducing emissions within their supply chain. 

Tune in as John explains, what carbon insetting is, how companies are using insetting to make significant impacts within their own supply chain, and the innovative technologies that 3Degrees have implemented to help food and beverage brands. 


Listen to the full episode here:

Harvesting Sustainability: Cultivating Carbon Solutions for the Food Industry (Video)

Dairy cow feedstalls

Join 3Degrees on a journey through the heart of sustainable agriculture! In this exclusive behind-the-scenes look, John Bourne, our Director of Agriculture, explores innovative methane reduction practices on two local farms.  These practices aren’t just transforming the farming landscape; they’re making a direct impact on the carbon footprints of food and beverage manufacturers. 

Discover how 3Degrees is at the forefront of creating scalable and verifiable solutions to tackle emissions at the farm level. Dive into the intersection of sustainable farming and climate action – because change begins at the source.

Ready to cultivate a greener future? Hit play now and explore the power of on-the-ground sustainability!




How to utilize insetting for your agriculture-heavy supply chains (video)

In recent years, companies with agriculture-heavy supply chains have begun taking new approaches to reduce scope 3 emissions. By integrating decarbonization work into the value chains they source from, companies that inset can help expand the adoption of sustainable agricultural practices and offer other organizations linked to agriculture an opportunity to purchase the emissions reductions factor in the voluntary carbon credit market. 

John Bourne, Director of Agriculture at 3Degrees, moderated a panel at VERGE titled “Incentives for Insetting.” Some of the key takeaways were:

  • Rigorous quantification matters,
  • Not all projects are created equal,
  • Insetting is not just GHG accounting, and
  • Benefits of inset projects should go to the farmer.

Want to learn more about carbon insetting as a supply chain solution? Click below to play the video recording. 

Want to explore how this solution can reduce your scope 3 emissions?

3Degrees has relationships with carbon project developers and can help you identify areas for carbon removal or insetting in your supply chain. Get in touch today to start the conversation.

Accelerating Europe’s renewable energy transition: Insights from RE-Source 2023

As the renewable energy sector continues to evolve, RE-Source 2023  acted as a critical platform for industry professionals. This congregation of buyers and sellers, policymakers, and experts was more than just an event—it was a beacon for the renewable energy transition in Europe. Over two days of rich discourse, attendees navigated the complexities of power purchase agreements (PPAs), addressed the turbulent energy market, and envisioned new horizons for renewable initiatives.

3Degrees was well represented with colleagues from various business units, including our consulting and trading teams. We all had the chance to connect with fellow attendees and get intrigued by new ideas, which we have condensed into these highlights:

Embracing the PPA Narrative

On day one, Luckaz Kolinski Head of Unit in the Directorate-General for Energy from the European Commission (EC) and Nick Bitsios Head of the Brussels Office from Mytilineos underscored the pivotal role of PPAs amidst market constraints. The discussions delved into overcoming intermittency issues and the challenges posed by revenue caps, emphasizing the need for a resilient PPA market. They also explored the digitalization of project pipelines, discussing 13 new renewable energy projects across Europe that are igniting a drive towards a greener future.

New Horizons to Address Natural Gas

The event was abuzz with talk potential of biomethane solutions. The dialogue extended to Gas Purchase Agreements (GPAs) and the complexities of Energy Attribute Certificate (EAC) Portfolio Management, signaling a readiness to expand beyond traditional markets.

Crafting the Future Blueprint for the EU Market Design

The EC’s impending updates to the market design were a central theme, with a consensus on the need for a long-term framework, underpinned by PPAs. The discussions around multi-buyer PPAs and the early engagement of buyers outlined a blueprint for a sustainable and inclusive European energy market.

Tyler Espinoza shared expert insights at RE-source 2023

Refining Strategies and Fast-Tracking PPA Negotiations

The second day of the event focused on refining PPA negotiation strategies, the rise of energy storage, and analyzing specific European markets. I spoke on a panel and shared expert insights on balancing risk allocation and the importance of buyer readiness to avoid delays. I discussed a refined approach for streamlining negotiations that emphasized pre-negotiation, direct dealings, and the benefits of in-person engagements, which provided actionable strategies for industry players.

Excitement Around Energy Storage

Developers expressed a growing interest in energy storage, a topic that has become central to discussions on renewable energy. As corporate buyers express concerns over energy storage, the conversation has started to shift towards risk mitigation, reflecting the dynamic nature of the market and the innovative solutions on the horizon.

A Gathering of Innovation and Strategy

RE-Source 2023 served as a melting pot of insights, strategies, and innovative visions, reinforcing the importance of transparency, readiness, and collaboration. The event painted a picture of a Europe poised to solidify its status as a renewable energy powerhouse, with RE-Source 2023 at the forefront of this transformative journey.

At 3Degrees, we are committed to supporting this transition, offering insights and guidance on how to navigate the evolving energy landscape. Look out for upcoming insights on the European energy landscape by signing up for our newsletter. And if you want to work together, please reach out to our team.


Navigating the CBAM Transitional Phase: A strategic Blueprint for Importers

In a bold stride towards combating climate change, the European Union (EU) rolled out the transitional phase of the Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM) in October 2023. Ahead of that move, the EU Commission adopted a CBAM implementation regulation, defining reporting obligations for the transitional period. This ushers in a new era of mandatory stringent reporting for corporations involved in importing and exporting CBAM goods in the EU. The transitional phase lasts just over a year, so affected EU corporations must adapt quickly to avoid noncompliance penalties.

This specifically affects the following designated carbon-intensive CBAM sectors, but there are plans to widen the scope in the future: 

  • Iron and steel
  • Cement
  • Hydrogen 
  • Aluminium
  • Fertilisers
  • Certain precursors (e.g., basic materials used in inputs in the production of CBAM goods)
  • Electricity
  • A limited number of downstream products (e.g., screws and bolts of iron and steel) 

The implementation regulation includes provisions for the establishment and operation of a CBAM Transitional Registry that importers in the affected sectors must utilise to submit their CBAM reports.

Understanding the CBAM Transitional Phase Landscape:

During the transitional period, importers in CBAM sectors are required to submit quarterly reports detailing both direct (scope 1) and indirect (scope 2) emissions embedded in imported goods, alongside any carbon price paid abroad for these emissions. The first of such reports is due for submission to the CBAM Transitional Registry by 31 January 2024 for imports occuring now, in Q4 2023. Below are the key transition phase dates:

Graphic of timeline of important CBAM dates. On October 1st 2023 CBAM transitional phase begins. On January 31st 2024, the first quarterly CBAM report is due for submission for imports in Q4 2023. December 31st 2025 is the end of the CBAM transitional phase, and lastly, January 31st 2026 is when the last quarterly CBAM report will be due for Q4 2025 imports.

Categories of Reporting Declarants:

The regulation identifies three categories of reporting declarants:

  • Self-reporting importers: Submit customs declaration on their own behalf. 
  • Authorised importers: Have special authorization to submit customs declaration on behalf of others (e.g. a large multinational corporation that has received special authorization from the customs authorities to handle customs declarations on behalf of its subsidiaries or associated companies).
  • Indirect customs representatives: Act as third-party representatives for importers, especially when the importer is not EU-based (e.g.typically third-party logistics providers, customs brokerage firms, or freight forwarders that offer customs declaration services as part of their portfolio).

What to Include in a CBAM Report

CBAM reports should encompass a range of information that’s broken down into four categories.

Imported goods: 

  • Quantity of goods imported (expressed in MWh for electricity and in tonnes for other goods) 
  • Type of imported goods identified by their specific product code (CN code)
  • When reporting on electricity as imported goods, the declarant must include the following: 
    • The emission factor for electricity, expressed as tonne CO2e/MWh
    • The data source and method used for determining the emission factor of electricity

Embedded emissions:

  • Country of origin of imported goods
  • Installation data from where the goods were produced 
  • Production routes used that specify the technology used for the production of the goods
  • The specific embedded emissions of goods (sum of scope 1 and scope 2 emissions associated with the production of a good) 

Embedded indirect emissions:

  • Electricity consumption per tonne of goods produced in MWh 
  • Indication of whether the declarant reports actual emissions or default values as published by the EU Commission
  • The corresponding emissions factor used for electricity
  • The amount of specific embedded indirect emissions

Carbon price:

In cases where corporations import goods from a country with an established carbon price the following should included in the report: 

  • Carbon price type, imposing country and monetary value
  • Type of CBAM good
  • Compensation available in the country that could result in a reduction of the carbon price.
  • Quantity of embedded emissions covered by the carbon price
  • Quantity of embedded emissions covered by rebate or free allocation
  • An indication of the provision of a legal act providing for the carbon price

Once finalised, importers must submit their reports to the newly established CBAM Transitional Registry which will be managed by the EU Commission. 

Non-compliance carries hefty penalties, ranging from €10 to €50 per tonne of unreported embedded emissions. The competent authorities in Member States will determine precise penalty amounts, making it crucial for corporations to prioritise compliance.

What Lies Beyond the CBAM Transitional Phase?

The transitional phase is a lead-up to CBAM’s full implementation on 1 January 2026. After this, CBAM reporting changes from quarterly to annual, with importers buying and surrendering yearly CBAM certificates through the registry, reflecting GHG costs of imported goods. CBAM certificate prices will match average weekly EU ETS auction prices, as CBAM phases in while free EU ETS emission allowances phase out. After the transitional phase, third-party emissions data verification is mandatory, emphasizing accurate reporting from the outset, even when verification isn’t required.

Implications for Corporations

The CBAM regulation signals a major shift urging corporations to overhaul their supply chain management and data exchanges. Importers must deepen ties with suppliers for essential data and implement systems to track and report GHG emissions. This necessitates significant technological and human resource investments. CBAM’s financial impact from 2026, could escalate corporate import costs, altering cost frameworks. Companies not reducing supply chain emissions may face heightened costs, affecting competitiveness. Corporations must address emissions with current suppliers or find lower-emission alternatives. Proactive EU exporters investing in low-carbon solutions will likely have a competitive edge. Notably,  CBAM’s scope is set to expand by 2026, urging all corporations to prepare.

Preparing for CBAM

CBAM is a testament to the EU’s unwavering commitment to climate action to reach its ‘Fit for 55’ climate neutrality goals. It necessitates a paradigm shift in how businesses operate within and outside of the EU. As we enter the CBAM transitional phase, the onus is on corporations to understand the intricacies of the CBAM regulation, align their operational frameworks accordingly, and foster a culture of compliance and sustainability.

Want to learn more about the CBAM landscape?

The 3Degrees’s Energy & Climate Practice team is ready to provide the requisite support and guidance to navigate through the CBAM landscape. Get in touch with our team to learn more.

Environmental Crediting for Dairy Digesters Featuring Peter Weisberg — The Carbon and Cow$ Podcast

In this episode with Peter Weisberg goes into detail on how dairy digesters can play a role in state clean fuel standard and cap-and-trade programs, as well as the Federal Renewable Fuel Standard program.

Peter breaks down their current trends and how supply and demand in these programs can influence digester project development.

If you are looking for a greater understanding of clean fuel and cap and trade programs and how they connect to biogas generation from dairy digesters, this episode is for you!


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